Organisational Culture Inventory™
Research and Development by Robert A. Cooke, Ph.D. and J. Clayton Lafferty, Ph.D.
“Culture is everything.”
Lou Gerstner of IBM (2002)
Quantifying and managing organisational culture is critical for bringing an organisation’s values “to life”, supporting the implementation of its strategies, and promoting adaptation, goal attainment, and sustainability. Organisations dedicate significant resources to developing structures and systems (e.g. performance management) on the one hand and measuring outcomes (e.g. engagement and service quality) on the other. However, it is essential to understand the factors in the middle of the equation - culture and the behaviours you’re trying to drive - to ensure that initiatives are in alignment with values and will move the organisation toward its mission. More generally, you need confirmation that the culture you’re creating is one that is proven to be linked to high performance. But where do you begin? As with most organisational change and development initiatives, it makes sense to start things off with the metrics provided by a statistically reliable and valid survey.
The Organisational Culture Inventory™ (OCI) is the most widely-used and thoroughly-researched tool for measuring organisational culture in the world. Numerous research studies utilising the OCI demonstrate the importance of measuring and managing culture. At the organisational level, the research shows a relationship between the Constructive culture styles measured by the OCI and outcomes including employee engagement, safety and reliability, successful merger integration, creativity, adaptability, and customer satisfaction. Similarly, at the societal-level, research underscores the importance of the Constructive styles and demonstrates a negative relationship between the Defensive culture styles and World Competitiveness.
How It Works
The OCI provides organisations with a visual profile of their operating cultures (Current Culture) in terms of the behaviours that members believe are required to "fit in and meet expectations". Such expectations guide the way they approach their work and interact with each other. In turn, these behavioural norms have a significant impact on the organisation’s ability to solve problems, adapt to change, and perform effectively.
OCI results are plotted on profiles that illustrate individual normative beliefs (when the perspective of only one member is considered) or the shared behavioural expectations that operate within the organisation and represent its culture (when the perspectives of multiple members are combined). Results are presented for 12 behavioural norms grouped into three types of cultures -Constructive, Passive/Defensive, and Aggressive/Defensive - on the Circumplex.
Defining an Ideal Culture
A special version of the OCI, the OCI-Ideal, provides leaders and organisations with a tool for quantifying, envisioning, and communicating their ideal or preferred organisational culture. Leaders and other members of the organisation answer questions to describe the types of behaviours (i.e. the culture) that would maximise effectiveness in their organisation. The end result is a picture of the organisation’s Ideal Culture based on their shared values and beliefs. The Ideal Culture profile serves as the benchmark against which the actual organisational culture can be compared. Together, these profiles provide a visual gap analysis, targets for cultural change, and a foundation for identifying the appropriate levers for effecting this change.
Outcomes of Culture
Beyond measuring operating culture, the current form of the OCI assesses key outcomes: individual member satisfaction, intention to stay, role clarity and role conflict, and perceptions of the organisation's service quality.
Additional outcomes, plus levers for cultural change, can be assessed by running the OCI in tandem with the Organisational Effectiveness Inventory™ (OEI).
The OCI can be used for:
- Signalling and/or validating the need for cultural transformation
- Planning and monitoring organisational development programmes
- Supporting programmes designed to enhance strategy implementation, employee engagement, organisational learning, quality and reliability, and/or customer service
- Facilitating mergers, acquisitions, and strategic alliances
- Enhancing managers' understanding of culture and sustainability
- Managing diversity and corporate responsibility
- Measuring culture for teaching and research purposes
Unique characteristics of the Organisational Culture Inventory™ (OCI)
- Measures behavioural norms and expectations that have a well-documented impact (positive and negative) on performance
- Provides a reliable, valid, and true measure of culture - clearly distinguishing culture and climate as distinct yet interrelated organisational variables
- Meets rigorous academic and psychometric standards with results reported in numerous journals and the Handbook of Organizational Culture & Climate
- Is part of the Integrated Diagnostic System, which visually links individual, manager, leader, team, and organisation behaviours with the Human Synergistics International Circumplex
Interested In Using The OCI?
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The OCI requires accreditation from Human Synergistics before materials can be purchased. Click here for more information about accreditation with the Culture Workshop.